Caffeine

Sleep Better! Grow Taller! Learn More!

All about caffeine! This resource was written by a health professional to teach tamariki about the impact of caffeine on their body. You can read through the information, see how much caffeine you can safely have in a day and also see how much caffeine is in common foods. If you think caffeine is a problem for you, maybe you should do some research into the food labels at your home.

All About Caffeine (Emma McKenzie, 2016)

What is Caffeine?

Caffeine is a chemical compound that grows in certain plants. There are about 60 different plants that contain caffeine. One plant is the cacao plant that is used to make chocolate flavours.

It can be extracted from plants and put in other foods.

If you spray caffeine on a plant, it can kill insects that want to eat the plant. (http://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/285194.php0)

 IN HUMANS, Caffeine is a psychoactive stimulant.

 Psychoactive means a chemical substance that changes brain function and results in alterations in perception, mood, or consciousness.

 Caffeine can have some mild positive effects in adults, such as making adults feel more awake. The reason many adults drink coffee and tea, which has caffeine, is that they often feel sleepy. They feel sleep because they do not get enough quality sleep. However, drinking too much coffee (usually more than 6 cups a day) or other drinks with caffeine can make it even harder to fall asleep!

 Caffeine can be a temporary fix for adults if they are tired, but it can also make it more likely that they will be tired later or the next day because caffeine may upset the part of their brain that helps them go to sleep at night.

 But, caffeine can be hidden in many other foods, not just in coffee, so sometimes it is hard to know whether or not you’ve had too much!

How does Caffeine Affect Children?

Caffeine may affect children by:

  1. Making them feel jittery inside
  2. Making them feel nervous or dizzy
  3. Making them have an upset tummy
  4. Making them have a stomach ache
  5. Making them feel depressed (less happy)
  6. Diarrhoea
  7. Having to go to the toilet more often
  8. Induce or increase hyperarousal states

About Caffeine and Sleep

No matter what time of day you have caffeine, if you have more than the limit, it might affect your sleep. But, after school up til bedtime is the worst time to have caffeine, and even a smaller amount may affect your sleep. This is because not all children have the same body weight and not all children process caffeine in the same way.

About 73% of children consume caffeine, but most do not know that caffeine is in food, not just in coffee or tea.

Aepli, A., Kurth, S., Tesler, N., Jenni, O. G., & Huber, R. (2015). Caffeine consuming children and adolescents show altered sleep behavior and deep sleep. Brain sciences, 5(4), 441-455.

“Additionally, it is possible that caffeine consumers exhibit a reduced capacity for the state of deep sleep related to cortical hyperarousal.”

 

Kurth, S., Dean III, D. C., Achermann, P., O’Muircheartaigh, J., Huber, R., Deoni, S. C., & LeBourgeois, M. K. (2016). Increased sleep depth in developing neural networks: new insights from sleep restriction in children. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, 10.

“Recent data indicate a role for sleep in processes associated with membrane synthesis, oligodendrocyte proliferation and myelin growth (Cirelli, 2005; Bellesi et al., 2013).” Sleep restriction (going to bed 2 hours later for one night) appeared to affect the myelin processes in a small healthy sample of children aged 5-12.

What is the Top Limit on Caffeine for Children?

The Canadian Government has created guidelines in regards to how much caffeine is safe for a child to consume.

Children aged 4-6 years   = 45mg of caffeine for 1 day

Children aged 7-9 years   = 62.5mg for 1 day.

Children aged 10-12 years = 85m for 1 day.

 Or, 2.5mg of caffeine for each kilogram of body weight.

http://www.hc-sc.gc.ca/fn-an/securit/addit/caf/food-caf-aliments-eng.php

How do children eat and drink caffeine?

 The information in this section is from the source below, and other sources as indicated for specific food/drink.

Thomson, B. and Schiess, S. (2010) Risk Profile: Caffeine in energy drinks and energy shots. Institute of Environmental Science & Research Limited. Christchurch, New Zealand

How much caffeine is in my food and drink?

milo.jpg

Type of item: Milo, milk chocolate drink

Brand: Nestle

Serving size: 15-20g in 200ml of milk

Amount of caffeine: 4.6-6.2mg (10% of instant coffee)

Notes: Caffeine is present as it naturally occurs in the cocoa bean and therefore the cocoa powder used in milo contains caffeine. Recommended serving size by Milo is 15gm or three teaspoons

Sources: https://www.nestle.co.nz/nhw/nutritionfactsheets/caffeine

https://www.nestle.co.nz/nhw/foodlabelling/theingredientslist

https://www.nestle.co.nz/nhw/foodlabelling/nestle-nutritional-compass

 coke.jpg

 Type of item Coca-Cola

Brand: Coca-Cola

Serving size: 355ml (1 can)

Amount of caffeine: 34.4 mg

Notes

Sources: http://www.coca-colajourney.co.nz/our-products/caffeine

coke0.jpg

Type of item: Coke Zero

Brand: Coca-Cola

Serving size: 355ml (1 can)

Amount of caffeine: 34.1mg

Notes

Sources: http://www.coca-colajourney.co.nz/our-products/caffeine

dietcoke.jpg

Type of item: Diet Coke

Brand: Coca-Cola

Serving size: 355ml

Amount of caffeine: 45.4mg

Notes

Sources: http://www.coca-colajourney.co.nz/our-products/caffeine

demon.jpg

Type of item: Demon Energy Drink

Brand: Davies Food

Serving size: 250 ml

Amount of caffeine: 80mg

Notes

Sources: Thomson & Schiess (2010)

redbull.jpg

Type of item: Red Bull

Brand: Red Bull

Serving size: 473ml

Amount of caffeine: 79.9mg

Notes

Sources: Thomsom & Schiess (2010)

v.jpg

Type of item: V Green

Brand: Frucor

Serving size: 250ml

Amount of caffeine: 77.5mg

Notes

Sources: Thomson & Schiess (2010)

lift.jpg

Type of item: Lift Plus

Brand: Coca Cola

Serving size: 249ml

Amount of caffeine: 37.35

Notes

Sources: Thomson & Schiess (2010)

moro.jpg

Type of item: Moro bar

Brand: Cadbury

Serving size: 70g

Amount of caffeine: 11mg per serve

Notes

Sources: Thomson & Schiess (2010)

 cookie.jpg

Type of item: Cookie Time

Brand: Cookie Time

Serving size: 1 biscuit 92g

Amount of caffeine: 11mg

Notes

Sources: Thomson & Schiess (2010)

actualbounty.jpg

Type of item: Bounty Bar

Brand: Cadbury

Serving size: 1 bar 45gm

Amount of caffeine: 8mg

Notes

Sources: Thomson & Scheiss (2010)

bounty.jpg

Type of item: Milk Chocolate Bar

Brand: Cadbury

Serving size: 50gm

Amount of caffeine: 10mg

Notes

Sources: Thomson & Schiess (2010)

 nutella.jpg

Type of item: Nutella

Brand: Ferrero

Serving size: 1tbsp/14gm

Amount of caffeine: 2mg

Notes

Sources: Thomson & Schiess (2010

ice.jpg

Type of item Iced Coffee drink ‘Ice Break’

Brand: Ice Break

Serving size: 500ml

Amount of caffeine: 140mg

Notes

Sources: http://icebreak.com.au/

 icerefuel.jpg

Type of item: Iced Coffee drink ‘Refuel’

Brand: Ice Break

Serving size: 500ml

Amount of caffeine: 210mg

Notes

Sources: http://icebreak.com.au/

 cocopops.jpg

Type of item: Coco Pops

Brand: Kelloggs

Serving size: 1 cup 40gm

Amount of caffeine: 2mg

Notes

Sources: Thomson & Schiess (2010)

  nutrigrain.jpg

Type of item: Nutri Grain Ice Break Cereal

Brand: Kelloggs

Serving size: 30gm

Amount of caffeine: max 20mgs

Notes: It was difficult to locate the caffeine amount, therefore a FB post asking the same question was the only information available. Serving size was determined at 30gms per serve

Sources: https://www.facebook.com/nutrigrainnz/videos/993799453989176/?comment_id=997101080325680&comment_

tracking=%7B%22tn%22%3A%22R6%22%7D

http://www.kellogg.co.nz/en_NZ/nutri-grain-ice-break-flavour-product.html

http://shop.coles.com.au/online/national/kelloggs-cereal-nutri-grain-8491755p

mountaindew.jpg

Type of item: Mountain Dew

Brand: Pepsi Co.

Serving size: 355ml

Amount of caffeine: 54mg

Notes:

Sources: http://www.pepsicobeveragefacts.com/Home/product?formula=44316*01*01-07&form=RTD&size=12

 pepsi.jpg

Type of item: Drink: Pepsi

Brand: Pepsi Co.

Serving size: 355ml

Amount of caffeine: 38mg

Notes:

Sources: http://www.pepsicobeveragefacts.com/Home/product?formula=44316*01*01-07&form=RTD&size=12

 energygum.jpg

Type of item: Energy Gum

Brand: Zestel

Serving Size: One stick

Amount of caffeine: 20 mg.

Note: Caffeine is absorbed through cheek lining, so bypasses the stomach for ‘faster absorption’ according to the product developers.

http://www.zestelgum.com/energy-gum/

Read more:

http://www.cyh.com/HealthTopics/HealthTopicDetailsKids.aspx?p=335&np=285&id=1630

http://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/285194.php

http://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/271707.php

http://www.healthline.com/health/caffeine-effects-on-body